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PowerShell

How to escape special characters in PowerShell

Ways to escape special characters in PowerShell are different between its context, and so complecated... # Context Escaped char " ' \ ` `` 1 String with " " ✓ ✘ ✘ ✓ ✘ 2 String with " $ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✓ ✘ 3 String with " ' - - - - - 4 String wi…

Invoke-RestMethod to GitLab API causes mojibake

Context In PowerShell, You can call REST API with Invoke-RestMethod like: Invoke-RestMethod -Headers $headers -Method Get -Timeout 10 -Uri "https://api.github.com/users/octocat/orgs" Problem The result of Invoke-RestMethod causes mojibake …

Format operator with string contains "{" and "}"

Context In PowerShell, you can format a string with -F operator like: Get-Content foo.csv | ConvertFrom-Csv -Header Name,Code,Address | ` ForEach-Object { "{0} `n {1} {2}" -F $_.Name,$_.Code,$_.Address } Problem -F operator returns error l…

Get CodePoint-Property Pair from Scripts.txt on Unicode.org

Context You want to make a list of pair of unicode codepoint and its character property, like below: 00009,Cc 00020,Zs 00021,Po 00024,Sc ... Solution with PowerShell You can make the list from ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/PropList.…

Convert deeply nested hash or array to JSON with ConvertTo-Json

Context You can read a JSON file like below with ConvertFrom-Json, and write with ConvertTo-Json properly. PS > Get-Content ./foo.json { "outerHash": { "innerHash": { "key": "value" } } } PS > Get-Content ./foo.json | ConvertFrom-Json | Co…

Convert an array to CSV with PowerShell

Problem You cannot convert an array with just pipeline the array to ConvertTo-Csv. PS > $array = ("a", "b", "c", "a", "d") PS > $array | ConvertTo-Csv "Length" "1" "1" "1" "1" "1" ... or just passing the array to ConvertTo-Csv. PS > Conver…

XmlNode.SelectNodes() always returns List in PowerShell 2.0

Problem: In PowerShell, by using XML DOM API in .NET, you can access to a child element in XML as a ordinary property. PS > $xml = New-Object System.Xml.XmlDocument PS > $xml.LoadXml('<a><b id="1">foo</b></a>') PS > $xml.SelectNodes('//a').b id #text -- ----- …

How to get a #text in XML even if the tag doesn't have attributes

Background: In PowerShell (even in C# or VB.NET?), you can get a body of the tag (text content) with '#text#' property. > $xml = New-Object System.Xml.XmlDocument > $xml.LoadXml('<a><b id="1">foo</b></a>') > $xml.SelectNodes('//a').b.'#text' foo Problem: If a …

Difference of GitHub API and GitLab API

Format of Personal Access Tokens In GitHub, personal access tokens are hex string, like e72e16c7e42f292c6912e7710c838347ae178b4a. In GitLab, personal access tokens are like Base62 string, like 9koXpg98eAheJpvBs5tK. Personal Access Tokens a…

Run a command with specific user priviledge in Windows (like sudo in Unix)

Problem: You can use runas command to run a command with specific user privilege. (Note: You have to type password into command prompt): C:\>runas /user:domain\username cmd Enter the password for domain\username: Attempting to start cmd as…

PowerShell does banker's rounding in type casting to int

Problem: PowerShell rounds 0.5 to 0 (banker’s rounding) in type casting to int. PS > @(-3.5,-2.5,-1.5,-0.5,0.5,1.5,2.5,3.5) | ForEach-Object { "{0} -> {1}" -F $_, [int]$_ } -3.5 -> -4 -2.5 -> -2 -1.5 -> -2 -0.5 -> 0 0.5 -> 0 1.5 -> 2 2.5 -…

Supported character encodings in Get-Content and Import-Csv (in PowerShell 2.0/4.0)

Tested in Windows 7 (Japanese). Import-Csv does not have -Encoding option in PowerShell 2.0. There are no option for UTF-32BE in PowerShell 2.0. (note: PowerShell ISE can handle UTF-32BE Files) Import-Csv does not support Unknown and Strin…

You should not pass the result of Get-ChildItem into Get-Content (and the like) directly

Context: You can pass the result of Get-ChildItem into Get-Content directly: PS /home/satob/tmp> Get-ChildItem | Where-Object { $_.Name -like "*.csv" } | ForEach-Object { Get-Content $_ } "a","x" "b","2" ... Problem: You cannot pass the re…

You cannot use -Encoding option with Import-Csv in PowerShell 2.0

Context: You use PowerShell 2.0 (Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2). You want to read CSV file that contain non-ASCII characters. Problem: In PowerShell 2.0, Import-Csv cmdlet doesn’t have -Encoding option. Solution: If you want to read …

Difference of acceptable parameters for -Encoding option

Acceptable parameters for -Encoding option are different for Get-Content, Set-Content, Export-Csv, Import-Csv, and Out-File. # cmdlet Default ASCII UTF-7 UTF-8 UTF-16LE UTF-16BE UTF-32LE UTF-32BE Byte Default OEM String Unknown 1 Get-Conte…

How to write result of ConvertTo-Csv to a file in UTF-8 without BOM

Context: You want to write the result of ConvertTo-Csv in UTF-8 encoding without BOM. e.g. You need a file that can be read by a Java program (Java File API cannot handle BOM in UTF-8 encoded files). UTF-8 in PowerShell, e.g. ConvertTo-Csv…

PowerShellで法務省 戸籍統一文字情報のページからあるコードポイントの文字の情報を取得する

(In English: How to get information about a Japanese character from 戸籍統一文字情報 site (managed by The Ministry of Justice (Japan)) with PowerShell) 問題: ある漢字に関する情報(読みや、子の名に使える文字か等)を調べたければ、法務省の戸…

ConvertFrom-String is not available on PowerShell Core Edition

Problem: ConvertFrom-String is not available on PowerShell Core Edition. Reason: It seems by design. According to the source of PowerShell on GitHub, ConvertFrom-String is exported for Desktop Edition, but not exported for Core Edition for…

System.Text.Encoding.GetEncodings() does not show all available encodings after call RegisterProvider()

Problem: If you want to use character encodings other than the default registered encodings, you have to call [System.Text.Encoding]::RegisterProvider([System.Text.CodePagesEncodingProvider]::Instance). But even if you call that method, th…

How to convert from a code point (U+xxxx) to a code point in another character encoding

function Convert-CodePoint { Param( [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true,Mandatory=$true)] [string] $CodePoint, [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$false,Mandatory=$true)] $From, [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$false,Mandatory=$true)] $To ) begin { …

Trimmed characters by trim() are different between languages

String object in .NET (PowerShell), JavaScript, and Java all have trim() method. But trimmed characters by trim() are different between these languages. # codepoint .NET JavaScript Java 1 0000-0008 ✘ ✘ ✔ 2 0009-000D ✔ ✔ ✔ 3 000E-001F ✘ ✘ ✔…

How to convert from a code point (U+xxxx) to a character

function ConvertFrom-CodePoint { Param( [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true,Mandatory=$true)] [string] $CodePoint, [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$false,Mandatory=$true)] $From ) begin { [System.Text.Encoding]::RegisterProvider([System.Text.C…

You can't use > in comparation (and it will be silently failed)

In PowerShell, you have to use -lt and -gt, instead of < and > in comparation, like POSIX sh. Especially if you wrongly use > like below, the comparison will be silently failed (evaluated as $false) and value of left-hand operand is wrote …

You cannot set a result of cmdlets to a property of object by Set-Variable

Context: You can set a result of cmdlets to a variable by Set-Variable. Problem: You cannot set a result of cmdlets to a property of object by Set-Variable. PS > $foo = New-Object PSObject | Select-Object Property PS > Get-ChildItem | Set-…

Mandatory parameter from pipeline, and empty lines

In a function that retrieve parameters from pipeline, if you make a parameter mandatory (Mandatory=$true), you will get error when an empty line is passed from the pipeline. If you receive parameters from the data which may contain empty l…

You cannot retrieve a required parameter from "either pipeline or argument"

## Context: A mandatory parameter of a function retrieved from pipeline is defined like this: param( [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true, Mandatory=$true)] [string] $foo ) A mandatory parameter of a function retrieved from argument is defin…

ConvertTo-Csv or Export-Csv always add double quote to all columns

ConvertTo-Csv or Export-Csv always add double quote to all columns. Get-Help Export-Csv -Full shows samples of CSV with no double quotes, but it seems there are no options to suppress double quote. This behavior doesn’t depend on system lo…

Avoid error when adding duplicated keys to hash (case sensitivity in hash tables on PowerShell)

Problem: Keys of hash tables are case sensitive in most languages (Java/JavaScript/Perl/Ruby/…). But in PowerShell, key of hash table is case insensitive (if you use string as key), so you will bump into errors in code like: PS > $hash = @…

You can't sort strings in ASCII order

When you pass chars to Sort-Object, the chars sorted in ASCII order. PS > (0x7E..0x21 | ForEach-Object { [char]$_ } | Sort-Object) -join '' !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~ But …

Difference of Sort-Object -Unique, Sort-Object | Get-Unique, and Select-Object -Unique

If you want to uniq a list in PowerShell, there is more than one way to do it and these are slightly different. # Cmdlets Sort-Object -Unique Sort-Object | Get-Unique Select-Object -Unique 1 Sort elements Yes Yes No 2 Case sensitive in ded…